[145], Makeba won the Dag Hammarskjöld Peace Prize in 1986,[10] and in 2001 was awarded the Otto Hahn Peace Medal in Gold by the United Nations Association of Germany (DGVN) in Berlin, "for outstanding services to peace and international understanding".

She continued recording and performing, including a 1991 album with Nina Simone and Dizzy Gillespie, and appeared in the 1992 film Sarafina!. [137], Makeba was among the most visible people campaigning against the apartheid system in South Africa,[11][111] and was responsible for popularising several anti-apartheid songs, including "Meadowlands" by Strike Vilakezi and "Ndodemnyama we Verwoerd" (Watch out, Verwoerd) by Vuyisile Mini. [82] Between 15,000 and 20,000 students took part; caught unprepared, the police opened fire on the protesting children,[83][84] killing hundreds and injuring more than a thousand. [10][75] Makeba shared the 2001 Polar Music Prize with Sofia Gubaidulina.

[44], Mama Africa, a musical about Makeba, was produced in South Africa by Niyi Coker.

[77], In 1976, the South African government replaced English with Afrikaans as the medium of instruction in all schools, setting off the Soweto uprising. In the Skylarks, Makeba sang alongside Rhodesian-born musician Dorothy Masuka, whose music Makeba had followed, along with that of Dolly Rathebe.

"[10], Makeba's music was also popular in Europe, and she travelled and performed there frequently.

[13][15] Makeba sang with the Skylarks when the Manhattan Brothers were travelling abroad; later, she also travelled with the Manhattan Brothers. If you see something that doesn't look right on this page, please do inform us using the form below: Caserta Provincia di Caserta Campania, Italy. [126][127] Her self-presentation has been characterised by scholars as a rejection of the predominantly white standards of beauty that women in the US were held to, which allowed Makeba to partially escape the sexualisation directed at women performers during this period.

[78] Her performances in Africa were immensely popular: she was described as the highlight of FESTAC 77, a Pan-African arts festival in Nigeria in 1977, and during a Liberian performance of "Pata Pata", the stadium proved so loud that she was unable to complete the song.

"[119], Makeba's use of the clicks common in languages such as Xhosa and Zulu (as in "Qongqothwane", "The Click Song") was frequently remarked upon by Western audiences.

[42] Makeba made several appearances on television, often in the company of Belafonte. [10], Makeba began her professional musical career with the Cuban Brothers, a South African all-male close harmony group, with whom she sang covers of popular American songs.

[9] Makeba was baptised a Protestant, and sang in church choirs, in English, Xhosa, Sotho, and Zulu; she later said that she learned to sing in English before she could speak the language.

[93][107] She also took part in the 2002 documentary Amandla!

[108] Due to her high profile, she became a spokesperson of sorts for Africans living under oppressive governments, and in particular for black South Africans living under apartheid. She also incorporated Latin American musical styles into her performances.

He persuaded Makeba to return to South Africa, which she did, using her French passport, on 10 June 1990. [81] Makeba later stated that it was during this period that she accepted the label "Mama Africa". "[139], Makeba has also been associated with the movement against colonialism, with the civil rights and black power movements in the US, and with the Pan-African movement. Her father played the piano, and his musical inclination was later a factor in Makeba's family accepting what was seen as a risque choice of career. South African singer and civil rights activist.

Makeba was left responsible for her two grandchildren, and decided to move out of Guinea.

[10][75] Her work with Belafonte in the 1960s has been described as creating the genre of world music before the concept entered the popular imagination, and also as highlighting the diversity and cultural pluralism within African music. [76], Guinea remained Makeba's home for the next 15 years, and she and her husband became close to President Ahmed Sékou Touré and his wife, Andrée.

[69] In 1967, more than ten years after she first recorded the song, the single "Pata Pata" was released in the US on an album of the same title, and became a worldwide hit.

She moved to New York City, where she became immediately popular, and recorded her first solo album in 1960. [30] She visited Kenya in 1962 in support of the country's independence from British colonial rule,[51] and raised funds for its independence leader Jomo Kenyatta. [15] The album included one of her most famous hits in the US, "Qongqothwane", which was known in English as "The Click Song" because Makeba's audiences could not pronounce the Xhosa name.

She could sing while making the epiglottal clicks of the Xhosa language. Miriam's grandmother, who attended the birth, often muttered "uzenzile", a Xhosa word that means "you brought this on yourself", to Miriam's mother during her recovery, which inspired her to give her daughter the name "Zenzile". [15], While performing with the Manhattan Brothers in 1955, Makeba met Nelson Mandela, then a young lawyer; he later remembered the meeting, and that he felt that the girl he met "was going to be someone. "[10] In 1956, Gallotone Records released "Lovely Lies", Makeba's first solo success; the Xhosa lyric about a man looking for his beloved in jails and hospitals was replaced with the unrelated and innocuous line "You tell such lovely lies with your two lovely eyes" in the English version. Several of the Skylarks' pieces from this period became popular; the music historian Rob Allingham later described the group as "real trendsetters, with harmonisation that had never been heard before.

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